White spot caused by failure to remove an air bubble on the film surface during development.
Radiograph showing the results of contact with another radiograph during processing. Arrow A points to one of several darker, irregular shaped artifacts which are pieces of emulsion from another radiograph. Arrow B indicates an area where fixer acted on undeveloped film emulsion. The emulsion was not developed because of contact with the side of the tank or another film during development. The remaining emulsion in a dual-emulsion film often shows a lighter version of the image. However, because the area involved in this radiograph is of a low-density crown, not enough detail remains. Arrow C indicates developer splash on the film just prior to processing.
Radiograph with part of the emulsion lost due to a prior to processing.prolonged wash period.
Splashes of fixer solution on the film before processing show up as white blotches on the radiograph.
Automatic developers have a "dark box" with hand holes in the side. The film is unwrapped in the dark box. If light can enter the box through the wrist-holes, this pattern commonly emerges. Dark areas appear where light reaches the film. Normal areas are where the fingers and thumbs were holding the film during unwrapping, protecting it from the light.
The problem here is that the hands were removed from the box too early. The film had not totally left the dark box and entered the developing compartment - there was still a little bit poking out of the rollers. When the hands were removed, light entered the box through the hand holes and exposed that little bit. You can see from the pattern that the film had not been fed exactly straight into the rollers.
Double images with contacting surfaces being underdeveloped. Either due to wet films coming in contact with each other or too rapid feeding of fully automatic systems.