Ellis classification (Tooth fractures)
Ellis Class I
- Enamel fracture: This level of injury includes crown fractures that extend through the enamel only. These teeth are usually nontender and without visible color change but have rough edges.
Ellis Class II
- Enamel and dentin fracture without pulp exposure: Injuries in this category are fractures that involve the enamel as well as the dentin layer. These teeth are typically tender to the touch and to air exposure. A yellow layer of dentin may be visible on examination.
Ellis Class III
- Crown fracture with pulp exposure: These fractures involve the enamel, dentin, and pulp layers. These teeth are tender (similar to those in the Ellis II category) and have a visible area of pink, red, or even blood at the center of the tooth.
Ellis Class IV
- Traumatized tooth that has become non-vital with or without loss of tooth structure.
Ellis Class V
- Luxation: The effect on the tooth that tends to dislocate the tooth from the alveolus.
- Teeth loss due to trauma.
Ellis Class VI
- Avulsion: The complete separation of a tooth from its alveolus by traumatic injury.
- Fracture of root with or without loss of crown structure.
Ellis Class VII
- Displacement of a tooth without the fracture of crown or root.
Ellis Class VIII
- Fracture of the crown en masse and its replacement.
Ellis Class IX
- Fracture of deciduous teeth.