Ellis classification (Tooth fractures)

Ellis Class I

  • Enamel fracture: This level of injury includes crown fractures that extend through the enamel only. These teeth are usually nontender and without visible color change but have rough edges.

Ellis Class II

  • Enamel and dentin fracture without pulp exposure: Injuries in this category are fractures that involve the enamel as well as the dentin layer. These teeth are typically tender to the touch and to air exposure. A yellow layer of dentin may be visible on examination.

Ellis Class III

  • Crown fracture with pulp exposure: These fractures involve the enamel, dentin, and pulp layers. These teeth are tender (similar to those in the Ellis II category) and have a visible area of pink, red, or even blood at the center of the tooth.

Ellis Class IV

  • Traumatized tooth that has become non-vital with or without loss of tooth structure.

Ellis Class V

  • Luxation: The effect on the tooth that tends to dislocate the tooth from the alveolus.
  • Teeth loss due to trauma.

Ellis Class VI

  • Avulsion: The complete separation of a tooth from its alveolus by traumatic injury.
  • Fracture of root with or without loss of crown structure.

Ellis Class VII

  • Displacement of a tooth without the fracture of crown or root.

Ellis Class VIII

  • Fracture of the crown en masse and its replacement.

Ellis Class IX

  • Fracture of deciduous teeth.